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I grew up in Northern Germany and attended the Christian-Albrechts-Universität in Kiel, a harbor town at the Baltic sea. I received a M.S. in computer science from Syracuse University, and a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. For four years, I was VP and CTO of an Internet startup that went from 3 people in a tiny office to a public company. I now teach computer science at San Jose State University and held visiting appointments at universities in Switzerland, Vietnam, and Macau. In my copious spare time I write books and articles on programming languages and computer science education.



The March of Progress

1980: C 
printf("%10.2f", x);
1988: C++
cout << setw(10) << setprecision(2) << showpoint << x;
1996: Java
java.text.NumberFormat formatter = java.text.NumberFormat.getNumberInstance(); 
String s = formatter.format(x); 
for (int i = s.length(); i < 10; i++) System.out.print(' '); 
2004: Java
System.out.printf("%10.2f", x);
2008: Scala and Groovy
printf("%10.2f", x)

(Thanks to Will Iverson for the update. He writes: “Note the lack of semi-colon. Improvement!”)

2012: Scala 2.10

(Thanks to Dominik Gruntz for the update, and to Paul Phillips for pointing out that this is the first version that is checked at compile time. Now that's progress.)

Programming and Software

Fun Applets

Check them out to see what was exciting circa 1995.